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This part of the city stretches from Proletarska Square and the Lopan River to the central railway station and then further to the circular motorway running around the city. It used to be a swampy land plot with numerous meadows and small lakes. It is hard to believe now that only a few centuries ago the road running from the fortress to the foot of the Kholodna Gora (Cold Hill) had to be paved with brushwood to allow horse wagons to go along it. This part of the city was mainly inhabited by poorer citizens and craftsmen. This can be seen in the typical names of local streets: Kotsarska Street used to be inhabited by the ‘kots’ — craftsmen producing non-reversible shaggy carpets; crispins (or bootmakers) used to live in Chebotarska Street (in Ukrainian the word ‘cheboty’ means ‘boots’).

At the turn of the 19th century, the area was rearranged due to the efforts of architect P. Yaroslavsky, but the major elements of the old planning have been preserved in spite of all the changes which have been introduced to the planning.

The most interesting streets of the neighbourhood in terms of their architectural outlook are Poltavsky Shlyakh (the Way to Poltava), Karl Marx Street and Engels Street. They were being built up gradually and for quite a long period of time, starting with the mansions of the nobility and continuing with the stylish manufactories of the early 20th century. A variety of constructions in Pryvokzalna (Railway Station) Square is also very attractive. Several years ago, the architectural design of this square was awarded the State Prize of Ukraine in architecture.