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This town located at the Seversky Donets and Chuhuivka Rivers was founded in 1638 by Ukrainian Cossacks under the leadership of Hetman Yakiv Ostryanytsa. The historical centre of the town still preserves a settlement of the early medieval period, where Chuhuiv fortress was built in the late 16th century. In 1817–1857, the town was the centre of a group of military settlements. Most houses were one-storey buildings constructed of bricks and stones, and were a significant element of the town fortifications. The world famous painter I. Repin grew up in one of them. A three-storey building of the Ukrainian Military Headquarters with a clock tower (1830) has been preserved in the very centre of the city, as well as the Classical style building of the Holy Shroud Cathedral (1824–1834).